Cockburn, Andrew; Sims, Rachel; Osmond, Helen; Green, David; Double, Michael; Mulder, Raoul A
1. Correlational studies of reproductive success are plagued by difficulty over the direction of causation. For example, improved reproductive success with age can result from increased experience or reproductive effort, or selection against low-quality phenotypes that survive poorly. An association between supernumeraries and reproductive success in cooperative breeders can arise either because supernumeraries boost productivity, or productive territories accumulate supernumeraries. 2. Paired...[Show more]
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