Fujisawa, A.; Ido, T; Shimizu, A.; Okamura, S; Matsuoka, K; Iguchi, H.; Hamada, Y; Nakano, Y; Ohshima, S; Itoh, K; Shats, Michael; Xia, Hua
The present status of experiments on zonal flows in magnetic confinement experiments is examined. The innovative use of traditional and modern diagnostics has revealed unambiguously the existence of zonal flows, their spatio-temporal characteristics, their relationship to turbulence and their effects on confinement. In particular, a number of observations have been accumulated on the oscillatory branch of zonal flows, named geodesic acoustic modes, suggesting the necessity for theories to give...[Show more]
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