Lau, Desmond W M; McCulloch, Dougal G; Marks, Nigel A; Madsen, Nathan; Rode, Andrei V
The formation mechanism of carbon onions is investigated. The microstructure of onions formed using pulsed-laser deposition is found to depend critically on the background gas pressure. Molecular dynamics simulations show that an optimal annealing temperature of 4000 K is required to form well-ordered onions (concentric fullerene-like spheres), in agreement with experiment. The onions form from the outer layer first, and a model is presented in which the background pressure must be sufficient...[Show more]
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