Bielak, Allison; Gerstof, Denis; Kiely, Kim; Anstey, Kaarin; Luszcz, Mary A
Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline are associated in older age, but research is inconsistent about whether one condition influences the development of the other. We examined the directionality of relations between depressive symptoms and perceptual speed using bivariate dual change score models. Assessments of depressive symptoms and perceptual speed were completed by 1,206 nondemented older adults at baseline, and after 2, 8, 11, and 15 years. After controlling for age, education,...[Show more]
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