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Separate and Joint Effects of Alcohol and Smoking on the Risks of Cirrhosis and Gallbladder Disease in Middle-aged Women

Liu, Bette; Balkwill, Angela; Roddam, Andrew W; Brown, Anna; Beral, Valerie; Banks, Emily; Million Women Study, Collaborators


The separate and joint effects of alcohol and smoking on incidences of liver cirrhosis and gallbladder disease were examined in a prospective study of 1,290,413 United Kingdom women (mean age, 56 years) recruited during 1996-2001. After a mean follow-up of 6.1 years (1996-2005), incidence rates of cirrhosis and gallbladder disease were 1.3 per 1,000 persons (n = 2,105) and 15 per 1,000 persons (n = 23,989), respectively, over 5 years. Cirrhosis risk increased with increasing alcohol...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2009
Type: Journal article
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology
DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwn280


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