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Formation of Rare Earth Deposits in Carbonatites

Anenburg, Michael; Broom-Fendley, Sam; Chen, Wei

Description

Carbonatites and related rocks are the premier source for light rare earth element (LREE) deposits. Here, we outline an ore formation model for LREE-mineralised carbonatites, reconciling field and petrological observations with recent experimental and isotopic advances. The LREEs can strongly partition to carbonatite melts, which are either directly mantle-derived or immiscible from silicate melts. As carbonatite melts evolve, alkalis and LREEs concentrate in the residual melt due to their...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorAnenburg, Michael
dc.contributor.authorBroom-Fendley, Sam
dc.contributor.authorChen, Wei
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-28T00:28:15Z
dc.date.available2023-08-28T00:28:15Z
dc.identifier.issn1811-5209
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/296892
dc.description.abstractCarbonatites and related rocks are the premier source for light rare earth element (LREE) deposits. Here, we outline an ore formation model for LREE-mineralised carbonatites, reconciling field and petrological observations with recent experimental and isotopic advances. The LREEs can strongly partition to carbonatite melts, which are either directly mantle-derived or immiscible from silicate melts. As carbonatite melts evolve, alkalis and LREEs concentrate in the residual melt due to their incompatibility in early crystallising minerals. In most carbonatites, additional fractionation of calcite or ferroan dolomite leads to evolution of the residual liquid into a mobile alkaline “brine-melt” from which primary alkali REE carbonates can form. These primary carbonates are rarely preserved owing to dissolution by later fluids, and are replaced in-situ by monazite and alkali-free REE-(fluor)carbonates.
dc.description.sponsorshipUK Natural Environment Research Council grant NE/R013403/1, and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41673035 and 41530211). We thank John Eiler, Johannes Giebel, and Sophie Decrée for reviews and Johannes Giebel, Delia Cangelosi, and Pete Siegfried for contributing images.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.publisherMineralogical Society of America
dc.rights© 2021 The authors
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourceElements
dc.subjectbrine-melt
dc.subjectburbankite
dc.subjectcritical metals
dc.subjectrare earths
dc.subjectalkaline complexes
dc.titleFormation of Rare Earth Deposits in Carbonatites
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume17
dc.date.issued2021
local.identifier.absfor370503 - Igneous and metamorphic petrology
local.identifier.absfor370301 - Exploration geochemistry
local.identifier.absfor370508 - Resource geoscience
local.identifier.ariespublicationa383154xPUB28039
local.publisher.urlhttps://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationAnenburg, Michael, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationBroom-Fendley, Sam, University of Exeter
local.contributor.affiliationChen, Wei, China University of Geo Sciences
dc.relationhttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/LP190100635
local.bibliographicCitation.issue5
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage327
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage332
local.identifier.doi10.2138/GSELEMENTS.17.5.327
local.identifier.absseo280107 - Expanding knowledge in the earth sciences
dc.date.updated2022-07-24T08:20:12Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-85124826930
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
dc.provenanceThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY 4.0 License, which permits you to share and adapt this work providing the original work is properly cited, you provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.
dc.rights.licenseCreative Commons Attribution licence
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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