Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification
Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Mumby, Peter J; Hooten, Anthony J; Steneck, Robert S; Greenfield, Paul; Gomez, Edgardo D; Harvell, C.Drew; Sale, Peter F.; Edwards, Aladdair J.; Caldeira, Ken; Knowlton, Nancy; Eakin, C.Mark; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Muthiga, Nyawira; Bradbury, Roger; Dubi, Alfonse M; Hatziolos, Marea Eleni
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2 degrees C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef...[Show more]
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