Baalrud, S. D.; Lafleur, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.
Current-free double layers of the type reported in plasmas in the presence of
an expanding magnetic field [C. Charles and R. W. Boswell, Appl. Phys. Lett.
82, 1356 (2003)] are modeled theoretically and with particle-in-cell/Monte
Carlo simulations. Emphasis is placed on determining what mechanisms affect the
electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) and how the EVDF influences the
double layer. A theoretical model is developed based on depletion of electrons
in certain velocity...[Show more]
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