Although many animals use refuges to avoid predators, it is often costly to do so. The longer an individual remains in a refuge, the less time it has available for other essential activities, such as foraging and mate searching. Animals should therefore optimize the time spent in a refuge after an attack by adopting a flexible approach to predator avoidance. I examined refuge use in the fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, under variable foraging and mating contexts on a mudflat in Australia. There...[Show more]
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