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The biological standard of living in Indonesia during the 20th century: Evidence from the age at menarche

van der Eng, Pierre; Sohn, Kitae


This article analyses long-term changes in the mean age at menarche (MAM) as a biological indicator of changes in the standard of living in Indonesia. It finds that MAM was about 15.5 for birth cohorts in the late-19th century, decreasing to 14.5 by the 1930s, at which level it stagnated until the gradual decrease resumed since the early 1960s to around 12.5 in the mid-2000s. The article considers that long-term improvements in nutrition, educational attainment and health care explain these...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2019
Type: Journal article
Source: Economics and Human Biology
DOI: 10.1016/j.ehb.2018.11.004


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