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Molecular cloud formation by compression of magnetized turbulent gas subjected to radiative cooling

Mandal, Ankush; Federrath, Christoph; Kortgen, Bastian

Description

Complex turbulent motions of magnetized gas are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium (ISM). The source of this turbulence, however, is still poorly understood. Previous work suggests that compression caused by supernova shockwaves, gravity, or cloud collisions, may drive the turbulence to some extent. In this work, we present three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of contraction in turbulent, magnetized clouds from the warm neutral medium of the ISM to the formation of...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorMandal, Ankush
dc.contributor.authorFederrath, Christoph
dc.contributor.authorKortgen, Bastian
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-30T01:33:36Z
dc.date.available2022-06-30T01:33:36Z
dc.identifier.issn0035-8711
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/268613
dc.description.abstractComplex turbulent motions of magnetized gas are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium (ISM). The source of this turbulence, however, is still poorly understood. Previous work suggests that compression caused by supernova shockwaves, gravity, or cloud collisions, may drive the turbulence to some extent. In this work, we present three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of contraction in turbulent, magnetized clouds from the warm neutral medium of the ISM to the formation of cold dense molecular clouds, including radiative heating and cooling. We study different contraction rates and find that observed molecular cloud properties, such as the temperature, density, Mach number, and magnetic field strength, and their respective scaling relations, are best reproduced when the contraction rate equals the turbulent turnover rate. In contrast, if the contraction rate is significantly larger (smaller) than the turnover rate, the compression drives too much (too little) turbulence, producing unrealistic cloud properties. We find that the density probability distribution function evolves from a double lognormal representing the two-phase ISM, to a skewed, single lognormal in the dense, cold phase. For purely hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the effective driving parameter of contracting cloud turbulence is natural to mildly compressive (b ∼ 0.4-0.5), while for MHD turbulence, we find b ∼ 0.3-0.4, i.e. solenoidal to naturally mixed. Overall, the physical properties of the simulated clouds that contract at a rate equal to the turbulent turnover rate, indicate that large-scale contraction may explain the origin and evolution of turbulence in the ISM.
dc.description.sponsorshipthe Australia–Germany Joint Research Cooperation Scheme (UA-DAAD). We further acknowledge highperformance computing resources provided by the Leibniz Rechenzentrum and the Gauss Centre for Supercomputing (grants pr32lo, pr48pi, and GCS Large-scale project 10391), the Australian National Computational Infrastructure (grant ek9) in the framework of the National Computational Merit Allocation Scheme and the ANU Merit Allocation Scheme. BK thanks for funding from the DFG grant BA 3706/15-1. The simulation software FLASH was in part developed by the DOE-supported Flash Center for Computational Science at the University of Chicago.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.publisherBlackwell Publishing Ltd
dc.rights© 2020 The authors
dc.sourceMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
dc.subjectmagnetohydrodynamics
dc.subjectturbulence
dc.subjectmolecular cloud
dc.subjectISM
dc.titleMolecular cloud formation by compression of magnetized turbulent gas subjected to radiative cooling
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume493
dc.date.issued2020
local.identifier.absfor000000 - Internal ANU use only
local.identifier.ariespublicationa383154xPUB13044
local.identifier.ariespublicationa383154xPUB13039
local.publisher.urlhttps://academic.oup.com/
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationMandal, Ankush, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationFederrath, Christoph, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationKortgen, Bastian, Universitat Hamburg
dc.relationhttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/DP170100603
dc.relationhttp://purl.org/au-research/grants/arc/FT180100495
local.bibliographicCitation.issue3
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage3098
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage3113
local.identifier.doi10.1093/mnras/staa468
dc.date.updated2021-08-01T08:22:02Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-85083984658
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
dc.provenancehttps://v2.sherpa.ac.uk/id/publication/24618/..."Author can archive the publisher's version/PDF" From SHERPA/RoMEO site as at 30/06/2022. This article has been accepted for publication in [Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society] ©: 2020 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
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