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Three Statistically Validated K2 Transiting Warm Jupiter Exoplanets Confirmed as Low-mass Stars

Shporer, Avi; Zhou, George; Vanderburg, Andrew; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Isaacson, H; Bieryla, Allyson; Torres, Guillermo; Morton, Timothy D; Bento, Joao; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Latham, David W

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We have identified three K2 transiting star–planet systems, K2-51 (EPIC 202900527), K2-67 (EPIC 206155547), and K2-76 (EPIC 206432863), as stellar binaries with low-mass stellar secondaries. The three systems were statistically validated as transiting planets, and through measuring their orbits by radial velocity (RV) monitoring we have derived the companion masses to be -0.1459+0.0032 0.0029 ☉ M (EPIC 202900527 B), -0.1612+0.0067 0.0072 ☉ M (EPIC206155547B), and 0.0942±0.0019 ☉ M (EPIC...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorShporer, Avi
dc.contributor.authorZhou, George
dc.contributor.authorVanderburg, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorFulton, Benjamin J.
dc.contributor.authorIsaacson, H
dc.contributor.authorBieryla, Allyson
dc.contributor.authorTorres, Guillermo
dc.contributor.authorMorton, Timothy D
dc.contributor.authorBento, Joao
dc.contributor.authorBerlind, Perry
dc.contributor.authorCalkins, Michael
dc.contributor.authorEsquerdo, Gilbert A.
dc.contributor.authorHoward, Andrew W.
dc.contributor.authorLatham, David W
dc.date.accessioned2021-10-06T22:23:28Z
dc.identifier.issn2041-8205
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/250507
dc.description.abstractWe have identified three K2 transiting star–planet systems, K2-51 (EPIC 202900527), K2-67 (EPIC 206155547), and K2-76 (EPIC 206432863), as stellar binaries with low-mass stellar secondaries. The three systems were statistically validated as transiting planets, and through measuring their orbits by radial velocity (RV) monitoring we have derived the companion masses to be -0.1459+0.0032 0.0029 ☉ M (EPIC 202900527 B), -0.1612+0.0067 0.0072 ☉ M (EPIC206155547B), and 0.0942±0.0019 ☉ M (EPIC 206432863 B). Therefore, they are not planets but small stars, part of the small sample of low-mass stars with measured radius and mass. The three systems are at an orbital period range of 12–24 days, and the secondaries have a radius within 0.9–1.9 RJ, not inconsistent with the properties of warm Jupiter planets. These systems illustrate some of the existing challenges in the statistical validation approach. We point out a few possible origins for the initial misclassification of these objects, including poor characterization of the host star, the difficulty in detecting a secondary eclipse in systems on an eccentric orbit, and the difficulty in distinguishing between the smallest stars and gas giant planets as the two populations have indistinguishable radius distributions. Our work emphasizes the need for obtaining medium-precision RV measurements to distinguish between companions that are small stars, brown dwarfs, and gas giant planets.
dc.description.sponsorshipA.V. is supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, grant No. DGE 1144152. G.T. acknowledges partial support for this work from NSF grant AST-1509375 and NASA grant NNX14AB83G (Kepler Participating Scientist Program). D.W.L. acknowledges partial support from the Kepler mission via Cooperative Agreement NNX13AB58A with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. This Letter includes data collected by the K2 mission. Funding for the K2 mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission directorate. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.publisherInstitute of Physics Publishing Ltd.
dc.rights© 2017. The American Astronomical Society
dc.sourceAstrophysical Journal Letters
dc.subjectbinaries: eclipsing
dc.subjectstars: individual (K2-51, EPIC 202900527, K2-67, EPIC 206155547, K2-76, EPIC 206432863)
dc.titleThree Statistically Validated K2 Transiting Warm Jupiter Exoplanets Confirmed as Low-mass Stars
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume847
dc.date.issued2017
local.identifier.absfor020106 - High Energy Astrophysics; Cosmic Rays
local.identifier.ariespublicationu4351680xPUB271
local.publisher.urlhttp://iopscience.iop.org/2041-8205
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationShporer, Avi, Caltech Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
local.contributor.affiliationZhou, Guyin (George), College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationVanderburg, Andrew, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.contributor.affiliationFulton, Benjamin J., California Institute of Technology
local.contributor.affiliationIsaacson, H, University of California
local.contributor.affiliationBieryla, Allyson, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.contributor.affiliationTorres, Guillermo, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.contributor.affiliationMorton, Timothy D , Princeton University
local.contributor.affiliationBento (Da Silva Bento), Joao, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationBerlind, Perry, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.contributor.affiliationCalkins, Michael, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.contributor.affiliationEsquerdo, Gilbert A., Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.contributor.affiliationHoward, Andrew W., California Institute of Technology
local.contributor.affiliationLatham, David W, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
local.description.embargo2099-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.issue2
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage1
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage7
local.identifier.doi10.3847/2041-8213/aa8bff
dc.date.updated2020-11-23T11:22:22Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-85030858367
local.identifier.thomsonID000411927000003
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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