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A meta-regression analysis of 41 Australian problem gambling prevalence estimates and their relationship to total spending on electronic gaming machines

Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce; Sugden, Mark

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Background: Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM) and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorMarkham, Francis
dc.contributor.authorYoung, Martin
dc.contributor.authorDoran, Bruce
dc.contributor.authorSugden, Mark
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-29T00:05:10Z
dc.date.available2021-04-29T00:05:10Z
dc.identifier.issn1471-2458
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/231103
dc.description.abstractBackground: Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM) and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence. To test for this association this study examines the relationship between aggregated losses on electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and problem gambling prevalence estimates for Australian states and territories between 1994 and 2016. Methods: A Bayesian meta-regression analysis of 41 cross-sectional problem gambling prevalence estimates was undertaken using EGM gambling losses, year of survey and methodological variations as predictor variables. General population studies of adults in Australian states and territory published before 1 July 2016 were considered in scope. 41 studies were identified, with a total of 267,367 participants. Problem gambling prevalence, moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence, problem gambling screen, administration mode and frequency threshold were extracted from surveys. Administrative data on EGM and casino gambling loss data were extracted from government reports and expressed as the proportion of household disposable income lost. Results: Money lost on EGMs is correlated with problem gambling prevalence. An increase of 1% of household disposable income lost on EGMs and in casinos was associated with problem gambling prevalence estimates that were 1.33 times higher [95% credible interval 1.04, 1.71]. There was no clear association between EGM losses and moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates. Moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates were not explained by the models (I2 ≥ 0.97; R2 ≤ 0.01). Conclusions: The present study adds to the weight of evidence that EGM losses are associated with the prevalence of problem gambling. No patterns were evident among moderate-risk problem gambling prevalence estimates, suggesting that this measure is either subject to pronounced measurement error or lacks construct validity. The high degree of residual heterogeneity raises questions about the validity of comparing problem gambling prevalence estimates, even after adjusting for methodological variations between studies.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2017
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.sourceBMC Public Health
dc.source.urihttps://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-017-4413-6
dc.subjectGambling
dc.subjectTotal consumption theory
dc.subjectProblem gambling
dc.subjectProblem gambling prevalence
dc.subjectElectronic gaming machines
dc.subjectModerate-risk problem gambling
dc.subjectGambling expenditure
dc.subjectGambling losses
dc.titleA meta-regression analysis of 41 Australian problem gambling prevalence estimates and their relationship to total spending on electronic gaming machines
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume17
dc.date.issued2017
local.identifier.absfor111706 - Epidemiology
local.identifier.ariespublicationa383154xPUB6548
local.publisher.urlhttps://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationMarkham, Francis, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationYoung, Martin, Southern Cross University
local.contributor.affiliationDoran, Bruce, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationSugden, Mark, Southern Cross University
local.bibliographicCitation.issue495
local.identifier.doi10.1186/s12889-017-4413-6
local.identifier.absseo920405 - Environmental Health
dc.date.updated2020-11-23T10:06:24Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-85019958539
local.identifier.thomsonID000401869300003
dcterms.accessRightsopen access
dc.provenanceThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.rights.licenseCreative Commons Attribution licence
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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