Munns, Rana; Passioura, John; Colmer, Timothy D; Byrt, Caitlin
Plant roots must exclude almost all of the Na+ and Cl– in saline soil while taking up water,
otherwise these ions would build up to high concentrations in leaves. Plants evaporate c. 50 times
more water than they retain, so 98% exclusion would result in shoot NaCl concentrations equal
to that of the external medium. Taking up just 2% of the NaCl allows a plant to osmotically adjust
the Na+ and Cl– in vacuoles, while organic solutes provide the balancing osmotic pressure in the
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