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Birth order, atopy, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Grulich, Andrew E; Vajdic, Claire M; Kaldor, John M; Hughes, Ann Maree; Kricker, Anne; Fritschi, Lin; Turner, Jennifer; Milliken, Sam; Benke, Geza; Armstrong, Bruce K

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Background: Immune deficiency is a strong risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but whether or not other forms of immune dysregulation are associated with NHL risk is unknown. We investigated associations between atopy, which is associated with a Th2-dominant immune response, and NHL risk. Because late birth order and childhood crowding are inversely associated with atopy, we also investigated their associations with NHL risk. Methods: We carried out a population-based case-control study...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorGrulich, Andrew E
dc.contributor.authorVajdic, Claire M
dc.contributor.authorKaldor, John M
dc.contributor.authorHughes, Ann Maree
dc.contributor.authorKricker, Anne
dc.contributor.authorFritschi, Lin
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorMilliken, Sam
dc.contributor.authorBenke, Geza
dc.contributor.authorArmstrong, Bruce K
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-07T22:31:16Z
dc.identifier.issn0027-8874
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/22701
dc.description.abstractBackground: Immune deficiency is a strong risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but whether or not other forms of immune dysregulation are associated with NHL risk is unknown. We investigated associations between atopy, which is associated with a Th2-dominant immune response, and NHL risk. Because late birth order and childhood crowding are inversely associated with atopy, we also investigated their associations with NHL risk. Methods: We carried out a population-based case-control study among adults aged 20-74 years in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. NHL patients without clinically apparent immune deficiency (N = 704) were selected from a cancer registry, and control subjects (N = 694) were randomly selected from state electoral rolls and frequency-matched to case patients by age, sex, and area of residence. Birth order, childhood crowding, and history of atopic conditions (hay fever, asthma, eczema, and specific allergies) were assessed by questionnaire and interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from logistic regression models that included the matching variables as covariates. Results: The odds ratios for developing NHL were 0.52 (95% CI = 0.32 to 0.84) for only children, 0.55 (95% CI = 0.40 to 0.75) for first-born children, 0.70 (95% CI = 0.51 to 0.96) for second-born children, and 0.81 (0.57 to 1.14) for third-born children (all compared with fourth- or later-born children) (Ptrend<.001). Indicators of crowding in later childhood, such as sharing a bed or bedroom, were not associated with NHL risk. A history of atopic conditions was associated with a reduced risk of NHL; this reduction was statistically significant for hay fever (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.82) and food allergies (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.20 to 0.42). Conclusions: Early birth order and its immunologic consequence, a Th2-dominated immune response, as reflected by a history of atopic disease, are associated with a reduced risk of NHL.
dc.publisherOxford University Press
dc.sourceJournal of the National Cancer Institute
dc.subjectKeywords: adult; aged; article; asthma; Australia; birth order; case control study; eczema; female; food allergy; hay fever; human; immediate type hypersensitivity; immunology; male; middle aged; nonhodgkin lymphoma; questionnaire; risk; risk assessment; age; atopy
dc.titleBirth order, atopy, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume97
dc.date.issued2005
local.identifier.absfor111706 - Epidemiology
local.identifier.ariespublicationu3962038xPUB23
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationGrulich, Andrew E, University of New South Wales
local.contributor.affiliationVajdic, Claire M, University of New South Wales
local.contributor.affiliationKaldor, John M, University of New South Wales
local.contributor.affiliationHughes, Ann Maree, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationKricker, Anne, University of Sydney
local.contributor.affiliationFritschi, Lin, University of Western Australia
local.contributor.affiliationTurner, Jennifer, St Vincent's Hospital Sydney
local.contributor.affiliationMilliken, Sam, St Vincent's Hospital Sydney
local.contributor.affiliationBenke, Geza, Monash University
local.contributor.affiliationArmstrong, Bruce K, University of Sydney
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.issue8
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage587
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage594
local.identifier.doi10.1093/jnci/dji098
dc.date.updated2015-12-07T10:14:49Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-20244384991
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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