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Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties

Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Biermann, M.; Evans, Dafydd Wyn; Eyer, Laurent; Jansen, Fred A.; Zerjal, Maruska


Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims. A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorBrown, A. G. A.
dc.contributor.authorVallenari, A.
dc.contributor.authorPrusti, T.
dc.contributor.authorde Bruijne, J.
dc.contributor.authorBabusiaux, C.
dc.contributor.authorBailer-Jones, C. A. L.
dc.contributor.authorBiermann, M.
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Dafydd Wyn
dc.contributor.authorEyer, Laurent
dc.contributor.authorJansen, Fred A.
dc.contributor.authorZerjal, Maruska
dc.description.abstractContext. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims. A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. Methods. The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. Results. Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0 : 5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the G(BP) (330-680 nm) and G(RP) (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy.
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding for the DPAC is provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia MultiLateral Agreement (MLA). The Gaia mission and data processing have financially been supported by, in alphabetical order by country: the Algerian Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Géophysique of Bouzareah Observatory; the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF) Hertha Firnberg Programme through grants T359, P20046, and P23737; the BELgian federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) through various PROgramme de Développement d’EXpériences scientifiques (PRODEX) grants and the Polish Academy of Sciences - Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek through grant VS.091.16N; the Brazil-France exchange programmes Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Coordenação de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) - Comité Français d’Evaluation de la Coopération Universitaire et Scientifique avec le Brésil (COFECUB); the Chilean Dirección de Gestión de la Investigación (DGI) at the University of Antofagasta and the Comité Mixto ESO-Chile; the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) through grants 11573054 and 11703065; the CzechRepublic Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports through grant LG 15010, the Czech Space Office through ESA PECS contract 98058, and Charles University Prague through grant PRIMUS/SCI/17; the Danish Ministry of Science; the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research through grant IUT40-1; the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme through the European Leadership in Space Astrometry (ELSA) Marie Curie Research Training Network (MRTN-CT-2006-033481), through Marie Curie project PIOF-GA-2009-255267 (Space AsteroSeismology & RR Lyrae stars, SAS-RRL), and through a Marie Curie Transfer-of-Knowledge (ToK) fellowship (MTKD-CT-2004-014188); the European Commission’s Seventh Framework Programme through grant FP7- 606740 (FP7-SPACE-2013-1) for the Gaia European Network for Improved data User Services (GENIUS) and through grant 264895 for the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training (GREAT-ITN) network; the European Research Council (ERC) through grants 320360 and 647208 and through the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme through grants 670519 (Mixing and Angular Momentum tranSport of massIvE stars – MAMSIE) and 687378 (Small Bodies: Near and Far); the European Science Foundation (ESF), in the framework of the Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training Research Network Programme (GREAT-ESF); the European Space Agency (ESA) in the framework of the Gaia project, through the Plan for European Cooperating States (PECS) programme through grants for Slovenia, through contracts C98090 and 4000106398/12/NL/KML for Hungary, and through contract 4000115263/15/NL/IB for Germany; the European Union (EU) through a European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) for Galicia, Spain; the Academy of Finland and the Magnus Ehrnrooth Foundation; the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) through action “Défi MASTODONS”, the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the L’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) “Investissements d’avenir” Initiatives D’EXcellence (IDEX) programme Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL∗) through grant ANR-10-IDEX0001-02, the ANR “Défi de tous les savoirs” (DS10) programme through grant ANR-15-CE31-0007 for project “Modelling the Milky Way in the Gaia era” (MOD4Gaia), the Région Aquitaine, the Université de Bordeaux, and the Utinam Institute of the Université de Franche-Comté, supported by the Région de Franche-Comté and the Institut des Sciences de l’Univers (INSU); the German Aerospace Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., DLR) through grants 50QG0501, 50QG0601, 50QG0602, 50QG0701, 50QG0901, 50QG1001, 50QG1101, 50QG1401, 50QG1402, 50QG1403, and 50QG1404 and the Centre for Information Services and High Performance Computing (ZIH) at the Technische Universität (TU) Dresden for generous allocations of computer time; the Hungarian Academy of Sciences through the Lendület Programme LP2014-17 and the János Bolyai Research Scholarship (L. Molnár and E. Plachy) and the Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office through grants NKFIH K-115709, PD-116175, and PD-121203; the Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) through a Royal Society - SFI University Research Fellowship (M. Fraser); the Israel Science Foundation (ISF) through grant 848/16; the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) through contracts I/037/08/0, I/058/10/0, 2014-025-R.0, and 2014-025-R.1.2015 to the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), contract 2014-049-R.0/1/2 to INAF dedicated to the Space Science Data Centre (SSDC, formerly known as the ASI Science Data Centre, ASDC), and contracts I/008/10/0, 2013/030/I.0, 2013-030-I.0.1-2015, and 2016-17-I.0 to the Aerospace Logistics Technology Engineering Company (ALTEC S.p.A.), and INAF; the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) through grant NWO-M-614.061.414 and through a VICI grant (A. Helmi) and the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA); the Polish National Science Centre through HARMONIA grant 2015/18/M/ST9/00544 and ETIUDA grants 2016/20/S/ST9/00162 and 2016/20/T/ST9/00170; the Portugese Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through grant SFRH/BPD/74697/2010; the Strategic Programmes UID/FIS/00099/2013 for CENTRA and UID/EEA/00066/2013 for UNINOVA; the Slovenian Research Agency through grant P1-0188; the Spanish Ministry of Economy (MINECO/FEDER, UE) through grants ESP2014-55996-C2-1-R, ESP2014- 55996-C2-2-R, ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R, and ESP2016-80079-C2-2-R, the Spanish Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad through grant AyA2014-55216, the Spanish Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte (MECD) through grant FPU16/03827, the Institute of Cosmos Sciences University of Barcelona (ICCUB, Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu”) through grant MDM-2014-0369, the Xunta de Galicia and the Centros Singulares de Investigación de Galicia for the period 2016-2019 through the Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (CITIC), the Red Española de Supercomputación (RES) computer resources at MareNostrum, and the Barcelona Supercomputing Centre - Centro Nacional de Supercomputación (BSC-CNS) through activities AECT-2016-1-0006, AECT-2016-2-0013, AECT-2016-3-0011, and AECT-2017-1-0020; the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB/Rymdstyrelsen); the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research, and Innovation through the ESA PRODEX programme, the Mesures d’Accompagnement, the Swiss Activités Nationales Complémentaires, and the Swiss National Science Foundation; the United Kingdom Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) through grant ST/L006553/1, the United Kingdom Space Agency (UKSA) through grant ST/N000641/1 and ST/N001117/1, as well as a Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council Grant PP/C503703/1. The GBOT programme (Gaia Collaboration 2016b; Altmann et al. 2014) uses observations collected at (i) the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) with the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), under ESO programmes 092.B-0165, 093.B-0236, 094.B-0181, 095.B-0046, 096.B0162, 097.B-0304, 098.B-0034, 099.B-0030, 0100.B-0131, and 0101.B-0156, and (ii) the Liverpool Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias with financial support from the United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council, and (iii) telescopes of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network. In this work we made use of the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data (SIMBAD; Wenger et al. 2000), the “Aladin sky atlas” (Bonnarel et al. 2000; Boch & Fernique 2014), and the VizieR catalogue access tool (Ochsenbein et al. 2000), all operated at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). We additionally made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018), IPython (Pérez & Granger 2007), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), and TOPCAT (Taylor 2005,
dc.rights© 2018 ESO
dc.sourceAstronomy and Astrophysics
dc.subjecttechniques: radial velocities
dc.subjectstars: fundamental parameters
dc.subjectstars: variables: general
dc.subjectminor planets, asteroids: general
dc.titleGaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.absfor020104 - Galactic Astronomy
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationBrown, A. G. A., Leiden University
local.contributor.affiliationVallenari, A., Vicolo dell'Osservatorio
local.contributor.affiliationPrusti, T., European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC)
local.contributor.affiliationde Bruijne, J., European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC)
local.contributor.affiliationBabusiaux, C., Universite Grenoble Alpes
local.contributor.affiliationBailer-Jones, C. A. L., Max Plank Institute for Astronomy
local.contributor.affiliationBiermann, M., Universität Heidelberg
local.contributor.affiliationEvans, Dafydd Wyn, University of Cambridge
local.contributor.affiliationEyer, Laurent, University of Geneva
local.contributor.affiliationJansen, Fred A., European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC)
local.contributor.affiliationZerjal, Maruska, College of Science, ANU
local.identifier.absseo970110 - Expanding Knowledge in Technology
local.identifier.absseo970102 - Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
dc.provenance"Published version can be made open access on non-commercial institutional repository" from SHERPA/RoMEO site (as at 5.11.20).
CollectionsANU Research Publications


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