Reconstruction of ice crystal surfaces at low temperatures
It is generally accepted that the faces of ice crystals in equilibrium with the vapour undergo reconstruction to a quasi-liquid transition film at temperatures above about–20°C, though experimental evidence is equivocal. At much lower temperatures it appears that the free energy can be reduced by a less drastic surface reconstruction involving the orientation of surface dipoles to a superlattice. Calculations suggest that this superlattice should be energetically preferred on (0001) basal faces...[Show more]
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|Source:||Philosophical Magazine B|
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