Cockburn, John; Khosh, Stefan K.
Introduction This study examines the effect of augmenting the ultrasound reflectivity of needles using a novel electrolytic echo enhancement method. Methods Needles were connected by a lead to the negative terminal of a 4.5 V direct current source. A grounding pad, connected to the positive terminal, was positioned on the undersurface of an ex vivo ox liver phantom. During needle insertion into the liver, electrolysis was induced creating a layer of gas on the needle electrode. Results Analysis...[Show more]
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