In this paper the author attempts to reconcile two claims recently defended by Mitchell Green. The first is that illocutionary force is part of speaker meaning (Green 2018). The second is that illocutionary force is a product of cultural evolution (Green 2017). Consistent with the second claim, the author argues that some utterances - particularly those produced by infants and great apes - are produced with communicative intent, but without illocutionary force. These utterances lack the...[Show more]
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