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Etiology of Encephalitis in Australia, 1990-2007

Huppatz, Clare; Durrheim, David N; Levi, Christopher; Dalton, Craig; Williams, David; Clements, Mark; Kelly, Paul

Description

Encephalitis is a clinical syndrome commonly caused by emerging pathogens, which are not under surveillance in Australia. We reviewed rates of hospitalization for patients with encephalitis in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales, from January 1990 through December 2007. Encephalitis was the primary discharge diagnosis for 5,926 hospital admissions; average annual hospitalization rate was 5.2/100,000 population. The most commonly identified pathogen was herpes simplex virus (n =...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorHuppatz, Clare
dc.contributor.authorDurrheim, David N
dc.contributor.authorLevi, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorDalton, Craig
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, David
dc.contributor.authorClements, Mark
dc.contributor.authorKelly, Paul
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-07T22:21:16Z
dc.identifier.issn1080-6040
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/19962
dc.description.abstractEncephalitis is a clinical syndrome commonly caused by emerging pathogens, which are not under surveillance in Australia. We reviewed rates of hospitalization for patients with encephalitis in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales, from January 1990 through December 2007. Encephalitis was the primary discharge diagnosis for 5,926 hospital admissions; average annual hospitalization rate was 5.2/100,000 population. The most commonly identified pathogen was herpes simplex virus (n = 763, 12.9%). Toxoplasma encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis showed notable declines. The average annual encephalitis case-fatality rate (4.6%) and the proportion of patients hospitalized with encephalitis with no identified pathogen (69.8%, range 61.5%-78.7%) were stable during the study period. The nonnotifiable status of encephalitis in Australia and the high proportion of this disease with no known etiology may conceal emergence of novel pathogens. Unexplained encephalitis should be investigated, and encephalitis hospitalizations should be subject to statutory notification in Australia.
dc.publisherUS National Centre for Infectious Diseases
dc.sourceEmerging Infectious Diseases
dc.subjectKeywords: Australia; controlled study; encephalitis; hospitalization; human; major clinical study; microorganism detection; review; sex difference; subacute sclerosing panencephalitis; Toxoplasma; Aged; Child; Child, Preschool; Communicable Diseases, Emerging; Ence
dc.titleEtiology of Encephalitis in Australia, 1990-2007
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume15
dc.date.issued2009
local.identifier.absfor111706 - Epidemiology
local.identifier.ariespublicationu4637548xPUB10
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationHuppatz, Clare, Hunter New England Population Health
local.contributor.affiliationDurrheim, David N, University of Newcastle
local.contributor.affiliationLevi, Christopher, John Hunter Hospital
local.contributor.affiliationDalton, Craig, University of Newcastle
local.contributor.affiliationWilliams, David, John Hunter Hospital
local.contributor.affiliationClements, Mark, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationKelly, Paul, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, ANU
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.issue9
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage1359
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage1365
local.identifier.doi10.3201/eid1509.081540
dc.date.updated2016-02-24T11:15:43Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-70249087740
local.identifier.thomsonID000269507500004
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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