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Cycloplegic refraction by 1% cyclopentolate in young adults: Is it the gold standard? the Anyang University Students Eye Study

Sun, Yun-Yun; Wei, Shi-Fei; Li, Shi-Ming; Hu, Jian-Ping; Yang, Xiao-Hui; Cao, Kai; Lin, Cai-Xia; Du, Jia-Ling; Guo, Ji-Yuan; Li, He; Liu, Luo-Ru; Morgan, Ian; Wang, Ning-li

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Aims To document the difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction and explore its associated factors in Chinese young adults. Methods A school-based study including 7971 undergraduates was conducted in Anyang, Henan Province, China. Cycloplegia was achieved with two drops of 1% cyclopentolate and 1 drop of Mydrin P (Tropicamide 0.5%, phenylephrine HCl 0.5%) with a 5 min interval. Non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractions were measured by an autorefractor. A paired-sample...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorSun, Yun-Yun
dc.contributor.authorWei, Shi-Fei
dc.contributor.authorLi, Shi-Ming
dc.contributor.authorHu, Jian-Ping
dc.contributor.authorYang, Xiao-Hui
dc.contributor.authorCao, Kai
dc.contributor.authorLin, Cai-Xia
dc.contributor.authorDu, Jia-Ling
dc.contributor.authorGuo, Ji-Yuan
dc.contributor.authorLi, He
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Luo-Ru
dc.contributor.authorMorgan, Ian
dc.contributor.authorWang, Ning-li
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-15T01:02:35Z
dc.identifier.issn0007-1161
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/176341
dc.description.abstractAims To document the difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction and explore its associated factors in Chinese young adults. Methods A school-based study including 7971 undergraduates was conducted in Anyang, Henan Province, China. Cycloplegia was achieved with two drops of 1% cyclopentolate and 1 drop of Mydrin P (Tropicamide 0.5%, phenylephrine HCl 0.5%) with a 5 min interval. Non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractions were measured by an autorefractor. A paired-sample t-test and Spearman correlation analysis were used for analysis with data from only the right eyes included. Results Of the 7971 students examined, 7793 (97.8%) with complete data were included, aging 20.2±1.5 years. Male students accounted for 36.8%. Overall, there was a significant difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic SE (spherical equivalent) of 0.83±0.81D (p<0.01). The difference was 1.80±1.11D, 1.26±0.93D and 0.69±0.69D for those with cycloplegic hyperopia, emmetropia and myopia, respectively (p<0.01 for all). Those with a hyperopic shift less than 0.25D and 0.5D accounted for 11.1% and 34.1%, respectively. A significant relationship was found between difference in SE and cycloplegic refraction (r=0.33, b=0.11, p<0.01). Without cycloplegia, prevalence of hyperopia and emmetropia would be underestimated by 6.2% (1.0% vs 7.2%) and 5.7% (3.8% vs 9.5%), respectively, with prevalence of myopia and high myopia overestimated by 12.1% (95.3% vs 83.2%) and 6.1% (17.2% vs 11.1%). Conclusion Lack of cycloplegia will lead to significant misclassification of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in Chinese young adults. Cycloplegia is therefore essential for this age-group in epidemiological studies.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by the Integration, translation and development on Ophthalmic technology (Jingyiyan 2016-5), the Capital Health Research and Development of Special (2016-4-2056) and the Major International (Regional) Joint Research Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81120108007).
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group
dc.rights© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
dc.sourceBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
dc.titleCycloplegic refraction by 1% cyclopentolate in young adults: Is it the gold standard? the Anyang University Students Eye Study
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume103
dc.date.issued2019
local.identifier.absfor111301 - Ophthalmology
local.identifier.ariespublicationa383154xPUB10203
local.publisher.urlhttps://www.bmj.com/company/
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationSun, Yun-Yun, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationWei, Shi-Fei, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationLi, Shi-Ming, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationHu, Jian-Ping , Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationYang, Xiao-Hui, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationCao, Kai, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationLin, Cai-Xia, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationDu, Jia-Ling, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.contributor.affiliationGuo, Ji-Yuan, Anyang Eye Hospital
local.contributor.affiliationLi, He, Anyang Eye Hospital
local.contributor.affiliationLiu, Luo-Ru, Anyang Eye Hospital
local.contributor.affiliationMorgan, Ian, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationWang, Ning-li, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology
local.description.embargo2037-12-31
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage654
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage658
local.identifier.doi10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312199
local.identifier.absseo920107 - Hearing, Vision, Speech and Their Disorders
dc.date.updated2019-05-05T08:53:12Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-85049177282
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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