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Electron Kappa Distributions in Astrophysical Nebulae

Nicholls, David; Dopita, Michael; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa


Until recently, it had been assumed that the electrons in astrophysical nebulae (HII regions and planetary nebulae) are in thermal equilibrium, with energies described by the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. This may not always be true. Based on satellite and space probe measurements of electron energies in the solar system, where nonequilibrium energy distributions are regularly encountered, it appears to be entirely plausible that such distributions also occur in nebulae, under similar...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2017-04-28
Type: Book chapter
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804638-8.00017-6


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