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On the Nature of Evidence and ‘Proving’ Causality:Smoking and Lung Cancer vs. Sun Exposure, VitaminD and Multiple Sclerosis

Lucas, Robyn; Rodney Harris, Rachael


If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on ‘associations’ derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomized controlled trials to ‘prove’ causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer—from observational studies—is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2018
Type: Journal article
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15081726
Access Rights: Open Access


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