Mittag, Emil; Searles, Debra J.; Evans, Denis J.
The fluctuation theorem (FT) gives an analytical expression for the probability that in a finite nonequilibrium system observed for a finite time, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is violated. Since FT deals with fluctuations, the precise form of the theorem is dependent on the particular statistical mechanical ensemble. In the present paper we describe the application of the FT to the isothermal–isobaric ensemble.
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