The fitness cost to females of exposure to males does not depend on water availability in seed beetles
Access to multiple males can benefit a female in terms of increased fecundity and/or offspring performance. However, the presence of more males can also impose costs on females that arise from an elevated mating rate (e.g. due to increased genital damage, loss of feeding opportunities) and/or increased harassment. Different environments might influence the relative magnitude of these costs and benefits, because they can influence how often males and females encounter each other as well as the...[Show more]
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