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Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Paradies, Yin; Ben, Jehonathan; Denson, Nida; Amanuel, Elias; Priest, Naomi; Pieterse, Alex; Gupta, Arpana; Kelaher, Margaret; Gee, Gilbert

Description

Despite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This metaanalysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from 293 studies reported in 333 articles published between 1983 and 2013, and conducted...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorParadies, Yin
dc.contributor.authorBen, Jehonathan
dc.contributor.authorDenson, Nida
dc.contributor.authorAmanuel, Elias
dc.contributor.authorPriest, Naomi
dc.contributor.authorPieterse, Alex
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Arpana
dc.contributor.authorKelaher, Margaret
dc.contributor.authorGee, Gilbert
dc.date.accessioned2018-11-29T22:56:18Z
dc.date.available2018-11-29T22:56:18Z
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/153471
dc.description.abstractDespite a growing body of epidemiological evidence in recent years documenting the health impacts of racism, the cumulative evidence base has yet to be synthesized in a comprehensive meta-analysis focused specifically on racism as a determinant of health. This metaanalysis reviewed the literature focusing on the relationship between reported racism and mental and physical health outcomes. Data from 293 studies reported in 333 articles published between 1983 and 2013, and conducted predominately in the U.S., were analysed using random effects models and mean weighted effect sizes. Racism was associated with poorer mental health (negative mental health: r = -.23, 95% CI [-.24,-.21], k = 227; positive mental health: r = -.13, 95% CI [-.16,-.10], k = 113), including depression, anxiety, psychological stress and various other outcomes. Racism was also associated with poorer general health (r = -.13 (95% CI [-.18,-.09], k = 30), and poorer physical health (r = -.09, 95% CI [-.12,-.06], k = 50). Moderation effects were found for some outcomes with regard to study and exposure characteristics. Effect sizes of racism on mental health were stronger in cross-sectional compared with longitudinal data and in non-representative samples compared with representative samples. Age, sex, birthplace and education level did not moderate the effects of racism on health. Ethnicity significantly moderated the effect of racism on negative mental health and physical health: the association between racism and negative mental health was significantly stronger for Asian American and Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants, and the association between racism and physical health was significantly stronger for Latino(a) American participants compared with African American participants. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005464.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science
dc.sourcePLOS ONE (Public Library of Science)
dc.titleRacism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume10
dc.date.issued2015
local.identifier.absfor160508 - Health Policy
local.identifier.absfor160806 - Social Theory
local.identifier.ariespublicationu4738148xPUB50
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationParadies, Yin, Deakin University
local.contributor.affiliationBen, Jehonathan, Deakin University
local.contributor.affiliationDenson, Nida, University of Western Sydney
local.contributor.affiliationAmanuel, Elias, Deakin University
local.contributor.affiliationPriest, Naomi, College of Arts and Social Sciences, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationPieterse, Alex, University of Albany, State University of New York
local.contributor.affiliationGupta, Arpana, University of California
local.contributor.affiliationKelaher, Margaret, University of Melbourne
local.contributor.affiliationGee, Gilbert, University of California
local.bibliographicCitation.issue9
local.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0138511
dc.date.updated2018-11-29T08:11:24Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-84946899602
local.identifier.thomsonID000361797500073
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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