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The effect of pair-instability mass loss on black-hole mergers

Belczynski, K; Heger, Alexander; Gladysz, W.; Ruiter, Ashley; Woosley, S; Wiktorowicz, G.; Chen, H.-Y.; Bulik, T.; O’Shaughnessy, R.; Holz, D. E.; Fryer, Christopher; Berti, E.

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Context. Mergers of two stellar-origin black holes are a prime source of gravitational waves and are under intensive investigation. One crucial ingredient in their modeling has been neglected: pair-instability pulsation supernovae with associated severe mass loss may suppress the formation of massive black holes, decreasing black-hole-merger rates for the highest black-hole masses. Aims. We demonstrate the effects of pair-instability pulsation supernovae on merger rate and mass using...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorBelczynski, K
dc.contributor.authorHeger, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorGladysz, W.
dc.contributor.authorRuiter, Ashley
dc.contributor.authorWoosley, S
dc.contributor.authorWiktorowicz, G.
dc.contributor.authorChen, H.-Y.
dc.contributor.authorBulik, T.
dc.contributor.authorO’Shaughnessy, R.
dc.contributor.authorHolz, D. E.
dc.contributor.authorFryer, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorBerti, E.
dc.date.accessioned2018-11-29T22:52:05Z
dc.date.available2018-11-29T22:52:05Z
dc.identifier.issn0004-6361
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/152075
dc.description.abstractContext. Mergers of two stellar-origin black holes are a prime source of gravitational waves and are under intensive investigation. One crucial ingredient in their modeling has been neglected: pair-instability pulsation supernovae with associated severe mass loss may suppress the formation of massive black holes, decreasing black-hole-merger rates for the highest black-hole masses. Aims. We demonstrate the effects of pair-instability pulsation supernovae on merger rate and mass using populations of double black-hole binaries formed through the isolated binary classical evolution channel. Methods. The mass loss from pair-instability pulsation supernova is estimated based on existing hydrodynamical calculations. This mass loss is incorporated into the StarTrack population synthesis code. StarTrack is used to generate double black-hole populations with and without pair-instability pulsation supernova mass loss. Results. The mass loss associated with pair-instability pulsation supernovae limits the Population I/II stellar-origin black-hole mass to 50 M⊙, in tension with earlier predictions that the maximum black-hole mass could be as high as 100 M⊙. In our model, neutron stars form with mass 1−2 M⊙. We then encounter the first mass gap at 2−5 M⊙ with the compact object absence due to rapid supernova explosions, followed by the formation of black holes with mass 5−50 M⊙, with a second mass gap at 50−135 M⊙ created by pair-instability pulsation supernovae and by pair-instability supernovae. Finally, black holes with masses above 135 M⊙ may potentially form to arbitrarily high mass limited only by the extent of the initial mass function and the strength of stellar winds. Suppression of double black-hole-merger rates by pair-instability pulsation supernovae is negligible for our evolutionary channel. Our standard evolutionary model, with the inclusion of pair-instability pulsation supernovae and pair-instability supernovae, is fully consistent with the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) observations of black-hole mergers: GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012. The LIGO results are inconsistent with high (≳ 400 km s-1) black hole (BH) natal kicks. We predict the detection of several, and up to as many as ~60, BH-BH mergers with a total mass of 10−150 M⊙ (most likely range: 20−80 M⊙) in the forthcoming ~60 effective days of the LIGO O2 observations, assuming the detectors reach the optimistic target O2 sensitivity.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.publisherSpringer
dc.sourceAstronomy and Astrophysics
dc.titleThe effect of pair-instability mass loss on black-hole mergers
dc.typeJournal article
local.description.notesImported from ARIES
local.identifier.citationvolume594
dc.date.issued2016
local.identifier.absfor020106 - High Energy Astrophysics; Cosmic Rays
local.identifier.ariespublicationU3488905xPUB25014
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationBelczynski, K, University of Warsaw
local.contributor.affiliationHeger, Alexander, Monash University
local.contributor.affiliationGladysz, W., Warsaw University
local.contributor.affiliationRuiter, Ashley, College of Science, ANU
local.contributor.affiliationWoosley, S, University of California Observatories
local.contributor.affiliationWiktorowicz, G., Warsaw University
local.contributor.affiliationChen, H.-Y., University of Chicago
local.contributor.affiliationBulik, T., Warsaw University
local.contributor.affiliationO’Shaughnessy, R., Rochester Institute of Technology
local.contributor.affiliationHolz, D. E., University of Chicago
local.contributor.affiliationFryer, Christopher, Los Alamos National Laboratory
local.contributor.affiliationBerti, E., University of Mississippi
local.bibliographicCitation.issueA97
local.identifier.doi10.1051/0004-6361/201628980
local.identifier.absseo970102 - Expanding Knowledge in the Physical Sciences
dc.date.updated2018-11-29T07:43:33Z
local.identifier.scopusID2-s2.0-84994000136
local.identifier.thomsonID000385832200104
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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