Ahmad, Imran Habib
This thesis explores climate policy integration (CPI) particularly looking at the structures and processes at the national policy scale and draws on insights from two developing countries, Pakistan and Malaysia. Climate policy integration is an emerging area of research in scholarly and policy literature that has been advanced as a mechanism for dealing with an integrated climate and development challenge. However, the literature is deficient in terms of coverage of developing countries,...[Show more] evidence of CPI at national scales, exploration of structures and processes and the conditions under which the process of CPI can be most effective. This research attempts to fill this scholarly and practical gap. This thesis presents interdisciplinary research touching on, inter alia, the areas of development policy and economics, sustainable development, environmental policy integration (EPI), public policy, environmental change and history, governance and international relations. Theory construction was formulated using case study and adaptive theory approaches. Empirical evidence was collected qualitatively through review and analysis of literature, document analysis and semi-structured interviews. In order to extend into actual policy systems of national scale, case studies of two developing countries, Pakistan and Malaysia, with contrasting but in some ways similar development challenges, were undertaken. While some of the issues that arise in Pakistan and Malaysia are predictable from a policy integration perspective and often identified in the literature (e.g. silos, question of lead agency), some arise that are less familiar (e.g. the role of information). Climate policy development has occurred in both countries, but with very different foci and priorities, especially regarding mitigation versus adaptation. Key agencies are becoming sensitised to climate change. However, there is a clear disconnect between the high-level political priority being increasingly accorded to climate change in both countries, and the slow rate of agency response and implementation. Mainstreaming or integration is occurring, but incorporation of climate change objectives into all stages of policymaking is still weak. 'Silos' across the policy system are a major issue. The information basis and capacity to develop and justify policy action across sectors is an issue in both countries, but with different emphases. As a process to begin understanding the climate mitigation and adaptation imperatives and costs for each country was only starting to appear, a full aggregate of climate consequences into the all aspects of public policy has still to be made and contradictions between sectoral polices have not been removed. The work contributes a new interpretation of CPI within a public policy and administrative framework. It suggests an integration dynamic that advances low carbon and climate-resilient development and questions the hitherto piece meal and incremental approach that national and global policymakers have internalised to deal with the climate challenge. This views mainstreaming as a vehicle for advancing low carbon and climate-resilient development rather than as an end product of existing practices. This requires a paradigm shift from existing separation of discourses, in particular on EPI and CPI to advance sustainable development. -- provided by Candidate.
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