Uptake of antigen for processing and presentation on MHC class II molecules is required for initiation of the adaptive immune response. The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) - dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and B cells - are responsible for this process. Many of the antigens encountered on the surface of foreign microorganisms are multivalent, such as viral capsid proteins. A great many more are rendered pseudo-multivalent by being held in an array on the cell surface - this...[Show more]
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