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Investigation of the scalability of rare-earth-ion quantum hardware

Bartholomew, John Glen

Description

In the last decade, the solid-state rare-earth-ion system has demonstrated increasing appeal for quantum computation. Despite this progress, two hardware limitations prevent a scalable implementation. These current limitations are the inability to miniaturise and the inability to perform single-ion qubit readout. This thesis addresses both these limitations and demonstrates that neither poses a fundamental restriction on increasing the scale of rare-earth-ion quantum computers. The challenge in...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorBartholomew, John Glen
dc.date.accessioned2018-11-22T00:04:58Z
dc.date.available2018-11-22T00:04:58Z
dc.date.copyright2014
dc.identifier.otherb3600206
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/150124
dc.description.abstractIn the last decade, the solid-state rare-earth-ion system has demonstrated increasing appeal for quantum computation. Despite this progress, two hardware limitations prevent a scalable implementation. These current limitations are the inability to miniaturise and the inability to perform single-ion qubit readout. This thesis addresses both these limitations and demonstrates that neither poses a fundamental restriction on increasing the scale of rare-earth-ion quantum computers. The challenge in miniaturising rare-earth-ion quantum hardware arises from the increases in homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening that accompany micron-scale architectures. The success of miniaturised architectures, such as waveguides, depends on the properties of bulk ions being preserved within microns of the crystal surface. In addition, bulk ion properties must also be preserved in regions of high residual stress resultant from waveguide fabrication. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous properties of near-surface ions and ions in highly stressed environments in Pr3+:Y2SiO5 were studied via white light interferometry combined with micron resolution fluorescence microscopy. It was found that the bulk ion properties could be preserved both near the surface and in highly stressed regions close to micron-scale surface damage. The observation of excess inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening was found to be consistent with the damage present at the crystal surface. The main outcome of the study was a set of waveguide fabrication guidelines to ensure that the appealing properties of bulk crystals can be maintained in a miniaturised architecture. The current inability to perform single-ion qubit readout is a consequence of the difficulty in isolating a single ion and lack of cyclicity in rare-earth-ion materials. Two techniques are proposed to form a solution: Stark activation and Zeeman enhanced cyclicity. When combined, these techniques offer direct readout for single-ion frequency-based quantum computing. Stark activation is designed to isolate a single rare-earth ion in a macroscopic crystal. The proposal is based on defining the condition for resonant excitation through a spatially varying electric field. A proof-of-principle experiment successfully created a 10 um absorption region within a millimetre thick crystal. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the technique was characterised in experiments probing Pr3+:Y2SiO5 at the single-ion level. Future improvements to the apparatus should allow the nanometre spatial resolution and the noise level to be reduced to allow single-ion optical detection. High cyclicity is essential for high-fidelity optical readout of a single-ion qubit. Zeeman enhanced cyclicity achieves this by manipulating the hyperfine structure of the resonant crystal field levels to induce strong hyperfine selection rules. The technique is shown to be applicable to even the lowest symmetry sites. The simulated level of cyclicity in Pr3+:Y2SiO5 was greater than 99.99% by applying a 10 T field. The investigation of scalability in the rare-earth-ion system marks a movement away from the traditional ensemble-based methods in macroscopic crystals. This study required an understanding of these materials at a single-ion level and the development of high spatial resolution spectroscopic techniques. These advances extend the ability to engineer rare-earth-ion systems for applications including, but not limited to, quantum computing.
dc.format.extentxvii, 439 leaves.
dc.language.isoen_AU
dc.rightsAuthor retains copyright
dc.subject.lcshRare earth ions
dc.subject.lcshQuantum computers
dc.subject.lcshQuantum computing
dc.titleInvestigation of the scalability of rare-earth-ion quantum hardware
dc.typeThesis (PhD)
local.contributor.supervisorSellars, Matthew
local.description.notesThesis (Ph.D.)--Australian National University
dc.date.issued2014
local.type.statusAccepted Version
local.contributor.affiliationAustralian National University. Laser Physics Centre
local.identifier.doi10.25911/5d611df4d553e
dc.date.updated2018-11-20T05:03:08Z
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
local.mintdoimint
CollectionsOpen Access Theses

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