This monograph surveys the history of what I have called the
'urban mass movement', between August 1983 and October 1987.
The movement - variously referred to as 'cause-oriented
movement', 'people's power', and 'people's movement' - emerged
as a protest movement during the Marcos years, when it
campaigned for the removal of Marcos and for a new government
which would institute democratic rule and carry out a range of
social and economic reforms. 1 More specifically, these terms have
been used to refer to the legal protest movement, as distinct from
the underground, armed, revolutionary movement. During this
period the legal mass movement flourished in both urban and rural
areas but the centre of its activities was in the major urban
settlements, especially Manila.