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The national-level energy ladder and its carbon implications

Burke, Paul John


This paper uses data for 134 countries for the period 1960–2010 to document an energy ladder that nations ascend as their economies develop. On average, economic development results in an overall substitution from the use of biomass to energy sourced from fossil fuels, and then increasingly towards nuclear power and certain low-carbon modern renewables such as wind power. The process results in the carbon intensity of energy evolving in an inverse-U manner as per capita incomes increase. Fossil...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2013-08
Type: Journal article
Source: Environment and Development Economics 18.4 (2013): 484-503
DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X13000090


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