Skip navigation
Skip navigation

The national-level energy ladder and its carbon implications

Burke, Paul


This paper uses data for 134 countries for the period 1960–2010 to document an energy ladder that nations ascend as their economies develop. On average, economic development results in an overall substitution from the use of biomass to energy sourced from fossil fuels, and then increasingly towards nuclear power and certain low-carbon modern renewables such as wind power. The process results in the carbon intensity of energy evolving in an inverse-U manner as per capita incomes increase. Fossil...[Show more]

CollectionsANU Research Publications
Date published: 2013-08
Type: Journal article
Source: Environment and Development Economics 18.4 (2013): 484-503
DOI: 10.1017/S1355770X13000090


File Description SizeFormat Image
Burke The national-level energy ladder WP1116 2011.pdf747.32 kBAdobe PDFThumbnail

Items in Open Research are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

Updated:  17 November 2022/ Responsible Officer:  University Librarian/ Page Contact:  Library Systems & Web Coordinator