This thesis links the transformation of urban environment to city evolution
under different phases of capitalism. Soja's interpretation of city evolution based on
industrialisation and urban form was elaborated to include physical and social
environmental changes and illustrated in reference to three cities — Manchester as a
competitive industrial city (1840s-1910s), Chicago as a corporate-monopoly city
(1920s-1940s), and Tokyo as a state-managed city (1950s-1970s). Bangkok differed
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