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The scientific revolution in Victorian medicine

CollectionsANU Press (1965- Present)
Title: The scientific revolution in Victorian medicine
Author(s): Youngson, A. J
Date published: 1979
Publisher: Canberra, ACT : Australian National University Press
The discovery of inhalation anesthesia in 1846 began a new era in surgery. Simpson demonstrated the value of chloroform as an anesthetic, and many surgeons quickly adopted it. But chloroform was dangerous if mishandled and only after considerable controversy and numerous fatalities was its use thoroughly understood and established. Painless childbirth was a different matter, and Simpson had to fight a long battle before the ignorance and prejudices of his colleagues were overcome. Ten years later an even more lengthy struggle began over antiseptic surgery. The 'germ' theory, on which Lister's technique was founded, had few adherents among British surgeons, and his methods were deemed absurdly complicated. He was opposed and sometimes ridiculed by the most distinguished men in the profession, including Simpson. Over ten years were required to persuade the majority of British surgeons that Lister did actually achieve the results which he claimed and that it was possible for a competent surgeon to do equally well, if only he would take the trouble. This book shows that a great many factors interacted in delaying the introduction of these new ideas. The almost wholly unscientific nature of British medical education and practice before 1860 or 1870, detailed in the first chapter, was one factor; rivalry and distrust between London and Scotland was another. Genuine disadvantages in the new methods were not unimportant either, while personal animosities, failure to face the facts, and fear of the unknowable consequences of change all played a significant part.


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