The period between the Ninth and Tenth Congresses of the CCP was one of immense and far-reaching changes within China. This book analyses these processes of change and assesses their significance. The Introduction and Conclusion locate the period within the framework of Mao Tsetung's theory of class struggle in socialist society. Individual chapters deal with the reconstruction of the Chinese Communist Party, the role of the People's Liberation Army, the debate concerning higher education, economic development, controversies over agricultural policy, the regularisation of industrial management, and foreign policy. The analysis of this period permits a longer- term perspective for the consideration of many of the vital issues raised by the Cultural Revolution, and this is a central concern of all contributions. It also provides an indispensable basis for the understanding of more recent events in China. The individual authors differ in their evaluations of the success of the Cultural Revolution and the implications of the consolidation policies persued after 1970. But, together, they offer a challenge to the conventional wisdom of both liberal orthodoxy and radical naivete.