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They are small worlds after all: revised properties of Kepler M dwarf stars and their planets

Gaidos, E.; Mann, A. W.; Kraus, A. L.; Ireland, Michael

Description

We classified the reddest (r-J > 2.2) stars observed by the NASA Kepler mission into main sequence dwarf or evolved giant stars and determined the properties of 4216 M dwarfs based on a comparison of available photometry with that of nearby calibrator stars, as well as available proper motions and spectra. We revised the properties of candidate transiting planets using the stellar parameters, high-resolution imaging to identify companion stars, and, in the case of binaries, fitting light...[Show more]

dc.contributor.authorGaidos, E.
dc.contributor.authorMann, A. W.
dc.contributor.authorKraus, A. L.
dc.contributor.authorIreland, Michael
dc.date.accessioned2016-12-20T01:50:25Z
dc.date.available2016-12-20T01:50:25Z
dc.identifier.issn0035-8711
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1885/111435
dc.description.abstractWe classified the reddest (r-J > 2.2) stars observed by the NASA Kepler mission into main sequence dwarf or evolved giant stars and determined the properties of 4216 M dwarfs based on a comparison of available photometry with that of nearby calibrator stars, as well as available proper motions and spectra. We revised the properties of candidate transiting planets using the stellar parameters, high-resolution imaging to identify companion stars, and, in the case of binaries, fitting light curves to identify the likely planet host. In 49 of 54 systems we validated the primary as the host star. We inferred the intrinsic distribution of M dwarf planets using the method of iterative Monte Carlo simulation. We compared several models of planet orbital geometry and clustering and found that one where planets are exponentially distributed and almost precisely coplanar best describes the distribution of multiplanet systems. We determined that Kepler M dwarfs host an average of 2.2 ± 0.3 planets with radii of 1-4R ⊕ and orbital periods of 1.5-180 d. The radius distribution peaks at ~1.2R⊕ and is essentially zero at 4R⊕, although we identify three giant planet candidates other than the previously confirmed Kepler-45b. There is suggestive but not significant evidence that the radius distribution varies with orbital period. The distribution with logarithmic orbital period is flat except for a decline for orbits less than a few days. Twelve candidate planets, including two Jupiter-size objects, experience an irradiance below the threshold level for a runaway greenhouse on an Earth-like planet and are thus in a "habitable zone".
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by NASA grants NNX10AQ36G and NNX11AC33G to EG. EG was also supported by an International Visitor grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation.
dc.format23 pages
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.publisherOxford University Press
dc.rightshttp://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/issn/0035-8711/ Author can archive publisher's version/PDF (Sherpa/Romeo as of 20/12/2016)
dc.sourceMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
dc.subjectstars
dc.subjectabundances
dc.subjectfundamental parameters
dc.subjectlate-type
dc.subjectlow mass
dc.subjectplanetary systems
dc.subjectstatistics
dc.titleThey are small worlds after all: revised properties of Kepler M dwarf stars and their planets
dc.typeJournal article
local.identifier.citationvolume457
dcterms.dateAccepted2016-01-11
dc.date.issued2016-04-11
local.publisher.urlhttp://www.oxfordjournals.org/
local.type.statusPublished Version
local.contributor.affiliationIreland, Michael, RSAA General, CPMS Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University
local.identifier.essn1365-2966
local.bibliographicCitation.issue3
local.bibliographicCitation.startpage2877
local.bibliographicCitation.lastpage2899
local.identifier.doi10.1093/mnras/stw097
dcterms.accessRightsOpen Access
CollectionsANU Research Publications

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