The shape of the radio wavefront of extensive air showers as measured with LOFAR
Butcher, Harvey; Frieswijk, W; Scholten, O; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Bonafede, A; Ciardi, Benedetta; de Gasperin, F; Duscha, S; Fallows, R A; Garrett, M A; Gunst, A W; Hoeft, M; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M; Maat, P; Norden, M J; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A.G.; Reich, W; Vermeulen, R.C.; Wijnholds, S J; Yatawatta, S; Avruch, Ian M.; Breitling, F; de Geus, Eugene; de Vos, Marco; Engels, Dieter; Hamaker, Johan P.; Iacobelli, M.; Kuper, G.; Munk, H; Toribio, C.; Vocks, Christian
Extensive air showers, induced by high energy cosmic rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere, produce radio emission that is measured with the LOFAR radio telescope. As the emission comes from a finite distance of a few kilometers, the incident wavefront is non-planar. A spherical, conical or hyperbolic shape of the wavefront has been proposed, but measurements of individual air showers have been inconclusive so far. For a selected high-quality sample of 161 measured extensive air showers, we...[Show more]
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