Deposition and Characterization of Silica-Based Films by Helicon-Activated Reactive Evaporation Applied to Optical Waveguide Fabrication
Planar silicon dioxide optical waveguides were deposited by use of a plasma-activated reactive evaporation system, at a low deposition temperature and with reduced hydrogen contamination, on thermally oxidized silicon wafers. The deposited films show a refractive-index inhomogeneity of less than 0.1%, a thickness nonuniformity of less than 5%, and a material birefringence of approximately 5 × 10-4. Rib-type channel waveguides were formed on the deposited films by means of hydrofluoric acid...[Show more]
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