Refractive index profiles of Ge-doped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy
We show a quantitative connection between Refractive Index Profiles (RIP) and measurements made by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Germanium doped fibers were chemically etched in hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) and the wet etching characteristics of germanium were studied using an AFM. The AFM profiles were compared to both a concentration profile of the preform determined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and a RIP of the fiber measured using a commercial profiling...[Show more]
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